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turkish history

The history of Turkey tells of a 10,000 year-old civilization. Anatolia is a melting pot where cultures from Sumer, Babylon and Assyria interacted for centuries with peoples such as the Hattis, Hittites, Hourrites. The result was a unique Anatolian civilization which has long inspired the thoughts and legends of the West. The Ancient Bronze Age witnessed the establishment of the first independent city states. At that time, the center and southeast of Anatolia were inhabited by the indigenous Hattis.
The most spectacular finding from this time are those of Alaca Höyük in the Kizilirmak region and of Horoztepe near Tokat, in the Black Sea region. They are contemporary with the royal tombs of Mycenae in Greece.

THE LEGENDARY TROY

Troy was founded 3000 BC, and played a major role in the importation of tin, vital for the production of bronze.

THE HITTITES ARRIVE

turkish history

The Hittites arrived in Anatolia towards the second millenium BC. They absorbed much of the Babylonian civilization and long enjoyed a monopoly of iron Asia. This, combined with the use of the chariot, gave the Hittites a military superiority over Egypt and other Mesopotamian states. The victorious raid against Babylon in 1590 BC was the climax of the first Hittite empire, followed by a period of decline. Then, in the first half of the fourteenth century, came a revival of power. This second era saw a Hittite hegemony stretching from the shores of the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf.

MITANNI KINGDOM

The Mitanni kingdom was a contemporary and the enemy of the Hittites. It was founded by the Hourrites, a people originally from the South Caspian Sea. The Hourrites exercised considerable influence over the religion of the Hittites, and spread the use of two-wheel chariots and the breeding of horses throughout the near-East.

THE URARTIAN STATE

At the beginning of the first millenium BC, the Urartus created a unified state whose territory extended from the Caucasus to lake Urmiya, with its capital in the present city of Van. The Urartus were masters in hydraulic works and skilled in irrigation, drainage and the construction of canals and artificial lakes. They were also known for their horse breeding and formidable cavalry.

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